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Importer and supplier of chemicals
Gohar Shimi Karan Pasargad


The company's field of activity in products such :

  • Potassium Emile Exantate (PAX)
  • Potassium ethyl xanthate (PEX)
  • Sodium isopropyl xanthate (SIPX)
  • Pine oil
  • guargam
  • Sodium silicate
  • Flocculant
  • MIBC
  • Iro 3477
  • Iro 3418
  • lime



A three-dimensional image of the floor flotation cell.

Froth flotation is one of the most important and widespread methods of separating minerals and wastes, and at the same time one of the most accurate methods of mineralization, which, in addition to most minerals, metallizes many non-metallic minerals and coal. It can be filled with its help.


Copper sulfide foam in floating foam cell

In the flotation section, the ore mixture is ground and the mixture is mixed with water called pulp into the aeration cells. In these cells, the dough is stirred and air is blown into it; And a significant amount of foam forms on the surface of the dough. The production of foam in flotation cells is done by the rapid rotation of a propeller inside it. In any case, the floor bubbles bring with them a large amount of ore particles that are attached to them, and the particles of waste material that can not stick to the air bubbles sink down. Foams that appear on the surface of the liquid. It is regularly removed from the top of the cell by mechanical shovels; And pours into the atmosphere at the edge of the cells. Overflow floors, which contain large amounts of minerals, precipitate as sludge after washing the floor; Which is sent to the next stage after dewatering and drying

Flotation, a practical method for processing copper

The most important economic ores of copper are sulfide, oxide ores and mixed oxide and sulfide ores.

Sulfide ores are usually concentrated by flotation-pyrometallurgy and oxide ores by hydrometallurgy. In oxide-sulfide mixed ores, the feed is first divided into two parts by sulfation method: sulfide concentrate and oxide-waste concentrate. Due to the fact that copper sulfides are insoluble in acid, hydrometallurgical methods are not currently used for these minerals on an industrial scale. With the increase of environmental problems of pyrometallurgy method, hydrometallurgy method and under pressure leach have been proposed as an alternative method to pyrometallurgy method. Interview with Mustafa Molaei, Master of Industrial Projects, who talks about a practical method of copper processing.

Explain about the flotation of copper sulfide minerals?

"Flotation" is the most important concentration method used to process base metals. Flotation is mainly used to concentrate copper, lead and zinc sulfide ores.

In addition, flotation is now used in the processing of non-metallic ores such as coal, fluorite, phosphate, potash, and oxides such as cassiterite and hematite. In flotation, the separation of minerals is based on differences in the physical and chemical properties of their surfaces. In this way, after preparing the pulp with the chemical reagents used, some of them become hydrophobic and others become hydrated.

In selective separation processes, air bubbles adhere to the hydrophobic particles, transporting them to the surface and forming a stable foam layer. This foam layer can be collected by paddles located on the surface of the flotation cell.

At present, flotation upgrading is one of the most important and most practical mineralization methods. The common term "flotation" actually refers to floor flotation. To use this method, valuable minerals must have reached a sufficient degree of freedom. This is made possible by proper shredding.

The flotation method is based on the physical chemical properties of mineral surfaces in the pulp environment. Collectors, foaming agents, regulators, activators, and inhibitors are some of the chemicals used in flotation operations.

At present, flotation method is widely used in the world and is one of the most important mineral selective mineralization techniques. Meanwhile, column flotation is one of the newest flotation methods that has advanced a lot in recent decades and is more efficient than the usual mechanical method.

How is upgrading done by flotation method?

Column flotation cells are used in various mines around the world and in Iran in mines such as Tabas Coal, Miduk Copper Mine Complex, Kerman Coal and Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex and Songun Copper on a laboratory and industrial scale is used and is expanding.

In the last 20 years that columnar cells have been widely used in industry, a grade increase of between 1 and 3% and an increase of recovery of 1 to 3% compared to conventional cells have been reported due to the multiple height of the floor compared to conventional cells and the presence of floor washing water. In columnar cells, an increase in titer is almost always observed.

The use of mechanical cells in the mineral processing industry is generally fraught with problems. For this reason, new technologies in the field of flotation machines have found an industrial aspect, one of which is the flotation column.

How is copper oxide ores processed?

Hydrometallurgical extraction of copper from aqueous solutions using copper-iron cementation began in Spain in the mid-18th century. Also in the 19th century, leaching of copper oxides was performed by penetrating downwardly acidic waters that were made artificially, and copper was recovered from the solution by cementation.

This method was considered a suitable method for low grade oxide meshes which was not economical by direct melting. However, this method depended on the cheapness and availability of scrap acid and iron sources. Sulfuric acid has almost always been of interest due to the fact that it is easily produced from sulfide or sulfur minerals. The advent of the electroneing method for the recovery of copper from sulfate solutions compared to cementation which required the removal of scrap iron has led to the economics of the processing process in which partial recovery of sulfuric acid used for leaching and higher value of the final cathode product compared to powders Copper was of interest.

Despite these advantages, electroneing only replaced cementation in a limited number of cases, due to limitations such as the strong dependence of electroneing on the high quality of the leaching solution. Development in Copper Mining Solutions, for example in the mid-1960s, economic advances allowed the electroning method to be applied to impure solutions obtained from low-grade sulfuric acid leaching operations.

All three main operations, leaching, solvent extraction and electroneing, need to be carefully completed to bring the process to overall efficiency. This requires detailed evaluation of actions to be examined and to determine the best correlation in cases of incompatibility.

What are the common copper leaching methods?

Dissolution methods used for hydrometallurgical extraction of copper include in situ leaching, mass leaching, pool leaching and turbulent leaching. The mine has geological and economic issues.

In this method, due to the low grade of the ore and the lack of economic justification for its extraction, the ore is leached on site and over a long period of time. Therefore, in case the mineral texture has sufficient porosity in situ or before the underground explosion, it can be exploited in the same way in situ. This method is used in leaching metal minerals of copper, uranium and water-soluble salts.

This process was first used to recover coated tailings from rock containing small amounts of copper that could not be compacted by any of the conventional mineralization methods. The favorable and economical result of this process caused this method to be applied to many other reserves. Even high-grade copper oxide ores are leached in this way, provided that the acid consumption by the waste is not increased.

Making a mass The method of work is to pile the stones and pour solvent on it. The solvent, while passing through the rocks, dissolves the mineral in it and is then recovered through channels through the flowing floor. Mass sales are generally done in two ways: "dump" and "hip".

In this case, the crushed ore is accumulated in a place. It is not even necessary to prepare the floor in this method, but the surface on which the mineral is poured should not have any problems in terms of permeability and stability.

This method has less copper recovery (about 50 to 60%) despite lower capital costs than hip leaching. The reason for the low recovery rate is problems such as the formation of flow channels and uneven distribution of solvent in the rock mass.

The "dump leaching" method is more commonly used in conjunction with the "hip" method and is less commonly used alone. Depending on the type of dissolving ore, it may be water, an acidic solution, or an acidic solution containing ferric sulfate from other sales operations at the same mine.

In this method, the ore is extracted and crushed and after softening or algomeration, it is carefully accumulated on an anti-acid and impermeable substrate to prevent the formation of flow channels in some parts of the mass. The acidic solution is pumped from the raffinate pool and sprayed on the surface of the mass.

The collected pregnant solution is directed from under the "hip" to the pregnant solution pool. The charged solution is pumped from the Pilas pool to the extraction unit with a solvent. If the copper concentration in the pool is low, this solution is returned to the hip so that the copper grade is acceptable for solvent extraction. After extracting the copper from the charged solution in the solvent extraction unit, a barren solution is obtained which is returned to the "raffinite" pool.

How does the dissolution of a pool or reservoir of oxidized copper ores occur?

Pond or reservoir dissolution of oxidized copper ores is used to directly produce a solution containing copper at a sufficient concentration for electrolytic extraction. Compared to in situ leaching and mass production mass in this method is high and it uses concentrated sulfuric acid. This method is usually used for "ammonia leaching" of oxide concentrates obtained by gravity method and ammonia leaching of minerals containing free copper.

Reservoir dissolution requires immersion of crushed minerals (less than one centimeter in size, usually with 3 crushing steps) in sulfuric acid solution at a concentration of 100 to 1650 in large rectangular ponds. One of the most important advantages of this high recovery method is the production of a high-grade pregnant product of about 85 to 95 (suitable for electrovining) as well as the removal of filters and thinners.

Turbulent leaching is a rapid dissolution method used for very fine particles of refined copper oxide minerals or "purified calcites" in concentrated acid solutions at concentrations of 100-500 sulfuric acid. While on-site leaching and mass leaching take years and pond leaching takes days. Turbulent leaching takes 2 to 8 hours.

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Gohar Shimi Karan Pasargad
Gohar Shimi Karan Pasargad


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